Urology (aka: genitourinary surgery) is a surgical subspecialty that tackles a wide spectrum of diseases involving the male and female urinary tract, the male reproductive system, and the female pelvic floor. Urologists manage afflictions ranging from genitourinary malignancies (renal cell carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, testicular carcinoma, etc.) and renal stones to congenital genitourinary defects, perineal reconstruction, and male infertility.
Although Urologists are surgeons, a significant part of the urologic practice also involves medical management of disease (i.e. no knife).
The American Urologic Association (AUA), the governing body for the specialty, divides Urology into seven subspecialties:
Oncology: Surgical management of neoplasms involving the Adrenals, Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, Prostate, Urethra, Testes, External Genitalia
Calculi: Medical, endoscopic, extracorporeal, percutaneous, and surgical management of stones of the urinary tract.
Female Urology: Medical and surgical management of incontinence and pelvic outlet relaxation disorders.
Infertility: Medical and surgical treatment of male infertility.
Pediatrics: Medical and surgical treatment of urological disease in the pediatric population.
Transplant: Renal transplantation.
Neurourology: Urodynamic evaluation of patients; medical and surgical management of voiding disorders and erectile dysfunction.